Revision of Literature On Endodontics I

  • code 12270
  • course 1
  • term Anual
  • type OB
  • credits 7

Main language of instruction: English

Other languages of instruction: Catalan, Spanish

Teaching staff


In the event that the health authorities announce a new period of confinement due to the evolution of the health crisis caused by COVID-19, the teaching staff will promptly communicate how this may effect the teaching methodologies and activities as well as the assessment.

In this subject students will study, by means of a critical analysis of both classic and current literature, the following topics: working length, consequences of apical widening, calcium hydroxide, reconstruction of the endodontic tooth and disinfection of root canals.

Pre-course requirements

No pre-requisites required.


For the subjects of working length, consequences of apical widening in terms of cleaning, calcium hydroxide and the disinfection and reconstruction of the endodontic tooth, the aim is for students to be able to:

Learn to critique articles.

Argue from the basis of quotations from current and classic literature.

List the controlled and uncontrolled variables of the study.

Know if the statistical method supports what the author wants to evaluate.

Point out deficiencies in the methodology.

Suggest possible improvements in the methodology used.

Discuss in a coherent way the different methodological options for assessing the issue under review.

Evaluate if the objectives match the stated scope of the study and if they are achieved.

Critique the introduction and the argument put forward by the authors of the article.

Contribute ideas for future studies to continue the research of the authors.

Assess the clinical contribution of the article.


Students will be expected to:

Develop the capacity for self-learning in the development of new instrumental techniques, the acquisition of new scientific concepts and the search for new scientific information.

Argue and defend their own scientific ideas as well as to listen, analyse, evaluate and respond to the ideas of others.

Acquire learning skills that allow them to continue studying in a self-directed and autonomous manner.

Understand how to provide a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas in a research context.

Apply acquired knowledge and develop a problem-solving ability in new or little known environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to the field of study in question.

Communicate knowledge, conclusions and the essential concepts that support them to specialised and non-specialised audiences in a clear and unambiguous way.

Know how to apply the appropriate diagnostic techniques and correctly interpret the results derived from them.

Develop the ability to integrate new knowledge acquired through research and study and deal with complexity.

Perform a correct analysis and diagnosis taking into account multidisciplinary factors of the masticatory system.

Acquire the skills to apply the scientific method, and to apply the knowledge obtained when solving problems within a scientific sphere.

Learn how to undertake both in vitro and in vivo research projects within the fields of mechanics, biology and micro-biology as they apply to endodontics.

Have autonomy in developing and applying new technologies in endodontics and in the search for new scientific information, and to acquire the ability to assess and undertake research projects.

Be able to practice as a clinical and/or research professional in the field of aesthetic restorative dentistry, acting as a genuine specialist or expert on the subject being able to diagnose, treat, prevent and research pulpoperiapical pathologies and to keep up-to-date in the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that emerge during their professional lives.

Acquire the skill to perform endodontic treatments and restorations on mucous membrane in patients presenting with pulpoperiapical pathology in a multidisciplinary way.

Be able to give public presentations of their own clinical cases, based on the literature, using the correct terminology related to pulpoperiapical pathology, working length, consequences of apical widening, calcium hydroxide and the reconstruction and disinfection of the endodontically treated tooth.

Acquire the scientific criteria to select the type of irrigators in each case as well as to know how to keep their knowledge of the bioceramic materials used in endodontics constantly updated, their use, their properties, indications, biocompatibilities and toxicity.

Be able to search and organise biomedical information sources and make a critical analysis of the scientific literature on issues relating to apical widening, calcium hydroxide and the reconstruction and disinfection of the endodontically treated tooth, in order to able to continue their on-going training in a self-directed and autonomous manner.

Be able to diagnose and prevent pulpoperiapical disorders and keep up-to-date with diagnostic and therapeutic advances that may develop throughout their professional careers.

Learning outcomes

Students will be expected to:

Know the different methods to calculate the working length as well as its limitations.

Know the anatomical characteristics of the apical third.

Know the different techniques to reconstruct an endodontically treated tooth as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Know the different materials and their characteristics to reconstruct an endodontically treated tooth.

Learn the different apical diameters expected depending on the tooth.

Learn the implication of increasing the apical diameter in cleaning the root canal.

Know the implications of increasing the apical diameter in the deformation of the root canal.

Know the characteristics of calcium hydroxide.

Know the disinfection capacity of calcium hydroxide.

Be aware of the different articles that have compared the results in healing and postoperative pain from a single visit versus two visits.

Be aware of the different in vivo studies that have been published on the efficacy of different irrigators and intracanal medication.


Apical anatomy.

Different methods of determining the working length.

Limitations of radiographs in determining the working length.

Operation of electronic apex locators.

Advantages of EALs.

Limitations of EALs.

In vivo studies of apical enlargement.

Irrigation efficiency as a function of apical enlargement.

Deformation of the root canal as a function of apical enlargement.

Characteristics of calcium hydroxide.

Bactericidal ability of calcium hydroxide.

Methods of placement and removal of calcium hydroxide.

In vivo studies on one visit versus two visits.

In vivo studies on the disinfection capacity of the different irrigants.

In vivo studies on the effectiveness of activating the different irrigants.

In vivo studies on the disinfection capacity of intracanal medication.

Characteristics of the posts.

Indications of the posts.

Different materials for reconstructing stumps.

Advantages and disadvantages of the therapeutic options for endodontic tooth reconstruction.

Teaching and learning activities

In person

Discussion of clinical papers during seminars.

Evaluation systems and criteria

In person

Class participation (30%) and written exam (70%)

Bibliography and resources

Articles from JOE, IEJ, Endodontic Topics and OOO relevant to the subject.

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